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Overview of the grant projects, resolved by the IA SAS

Konektivita v dobe železnej v Karpatskej kotline /Connectivity in the Iron Age in the Carpathian Basin

Pattern: Mobilitný projekt Slovenská akadémia vied – Rumunská akadémia vied

Project duration: 2022 – 2023

Responsible persons: Mgr. Lucia Benediková, PhD. – Dr. Habil. Aurel Rustoiu

Persons: AÚ SAV: Mgr. Lucia Benediková, PhD.; doc. PhDr. Gertrúda Březinová, CSc.; Mgr. Branislav Kovár, PhD.; PhDr. Karol Pieta, DrSc.; Mgr. Petra Dragonidesová (D); Mgr. Urszula Śmigielska (D); Institute of Archaeology and Art History, Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca branch: Dr. Habil. Aurel Rustoiu; Dr. Mariana Egri; Dr. Andreea Drăgan; Mgr. Adrian Căsălean (D)

Abstract: During the Iron Age (IA) the Carpathian Basin (C.B.) became a territory of interactions between indigenous and incoming people from different regions. In archaeology, the connectivity can be understood as a complex and diverse range of contacts and means of interaction between various communities. Their impact can be observed through the changes occurring in the way of life, subsistence strategies, ritual and social behaviour. The networks of connectivities of these communities had shaped their social and economic dynamics and the emergence of identity constructs, all being fundamental elements in the formation of local social and cultural landscapes. The project proposes an innovative, multi-disciplinary approach, aiming to investigate the ways in which different IA communities inside the Carpathians range interacted with the environment, creating, using and manipulating specific landscapes. It will contribute to a better understanding of the IA connectivity processes and their impact across the C.B. as the part of the common European historical tradition and cultural heritage.

Grant projects VEGA, resolved by the IA SAS

Registration number: 2/0115/22

Project duration: 1.1.2022 – 31.12.2025

Project title: The exploitation of natural resources from the Early Historic Period to the Modern Times in selected Slovak regions

Responsible peron: PhDr. Peter Bednár, CSc.

Abstract: The project aims to identify defunct mining sites based on LIDAR scans, site prospections in selected Slovak regions (Považský Inovec, Tribeč, Pohronský Inovec, Javorie, Revúcka vrchovina, Vihorlat, Slanské vrchy), mapping and cataloguing, detailed documentation and acquiring samples/finds for dating and enhanced interpretation through micro-surveys. The contribution of the project will include specification of sites chosen for more detailed research, basic documentation of the sites, sampling, detailed analysis and evaluation. Thanks to the solution of the project, qualitatively new information on ancient mining activities in Slovakia will be obtained.

Registration number: 2/0056/22

Project duration: 1.1.2022 – 31. 12. 2025

Project title: Strategy of settlement of eastern Slovakia in the context of prehistoric development of the Northern Tisza region

Responsible person: PhDr. Eva Horváthová, PhD.

Abstract: The suggested project provides continuity of scientific research in eastern Slovakia. It focuses on investigation of several topics from selected periods of the early and late prehistory which are being processed. In the geographically limited territory of the central part of the Košická kotlina basin, it publishes results of recognized models of environmental indicators influencing the dynamics and changes in the settlement strategy. It studies the accompanying phenomena of establishing and construction of fortified or enclosed settlements from the period of the Middle Eneolithic. It also complexly evaluates development and structure of settlement in the Middle Bronze Age (the Piliny culture in particular) and in the Hallstatt period. The obtained scientific observations are confronted with our knowledge from the wider geographical environment of northeastern Europe.

Registration number: 2/0025/22

Project duration: 1.1.2022 – 31. 12. 2025

Project title: Fords, bridges, long-distance routes. Ancient roads and seats in the regions of Požitavie and Pohronie with use of underwater archaeology.

Responsible person: PhDr. Klaudia Daňová, PhD.

Abstract: The project is a continuation of the previous VEGA project (2/0146/18) focused on investigation of the Váh and Nitra rivers. In the final phase of the project and associated activities, a whole range of methodologies was applied in the survey and research of Slovak rivers, new sites were discovered and first results of the research were published. The project included Slovakia in the European map of underwater archaeology. The goal of the submitted project is to continue in the search for and documentation of mainly immovable finds in underwater environment, continue in creation of a database of finds focused on these sites and, thus, bring new information on the currently unknown world under water.

 

Registration number: 2/0035/22

Project duration: 1.1.2022 – 31. 12. 2025

Project title: Relics of cultural landscape – identification and interpretation

Responsible person: Mgr. Lucia Benediková, PhD.

Abstract: The project focuses on identification and interpretation of relics of cultural landscape identified in LiDAR images and orthophoto images. It studies historical structures and their relations in the landscape: settlements, burial grounds, historical routes, relics documenting economic activities. The project includes prevention at protection of the cultural heritage, as the published sites are endangered by treasure hunters’ activities. Verification and functional interpretation of the relics will be carried out in microregions with several types of historical structures by means of comparison of archaeological and paleoenvironmental data. Field excavations will use procedures of multiple disciplines (archaeology, geophysics, archaeobotany, palynology, pedology, geology), methods of absolute dating (radiocarbon and OSL) and other analyses (isotopes). A suitable methodology of identification, research and interpretation of the detected archaeological areas will be also the outputs of the project.

 

Registration number: 1/0051/22

Project duration: 1.1.2022 – 31. 12. 2025

Project title: Roman fort at Iža – part of the UNESCO world heritage

Responsible person: PhDr. Ján Rajtár, CSc. (za AÚ SAV), prof. PhDr. Klára Kuzmová, CSc. (za FF TU Trnava)

Abstract: The focus of the project is the scientific analysis, evaluation and publication of existing knowledge about the Roman fort at Iža, a site this is enter in the UNESCO World Heritage List. It was the only fort on the northern borders of Pannonia that was situated on the left bank of the Danube. The project will document, analyse and interpret selected groups of material sources related to the architectural and historical developmental stages of the fort in a wider context. It will focus on the first, unique earth-and-timber phase of the fortification, and
on ten temporary field camps in its vicinity dating from the period of the Marcomannic wars. The project aims to confirm the scientific hypothesis about the link between the camps and the Roman military campaigns against the Quadi. The main output will be monographs and studies. The results will be presented at conferences and to the public, and implemented into the study programmes in classical archaeology at Trnava University.

 

Registration number: 2/0043/22

Project duration: 1.1.2022 – 31. 12. 2025

Project title: Archaeological sources to early historic times and Early Middle Ages in the Middle Danube region

Responsible person: PhDr. Karol Pieta, DrSc.

Abstract: By processing, evaluating and publishing research on central sites from key stages of the Early Historical Period and the Early Middle Ages, the project will provide an overall picture of the historical development of the Central Danube region. The concept includes building on the previous results of the research team, making valuable new materials available and refining the dating of these phases through a new series of natural history analyses.

 

Registration number: 2/0145/22

Project duration: 1.1.2022 – 31. 12. 2025

Project title: Chronological and regional aspects of the early medieval ceramics from the regions Ponitrie and Považie

Responsible person: PhDr. E. Fottová, PhD.

Abstract: Monothematic project which focuses on actual problems of study of the early medieval ceramics at the territory of Western Slovakia (regions Považie and Ponitrie). Ceramics is, as the most numerous archaeological find and at the same time basic archaeological source, the subject of interest. Scientific value of it is raised by the collaboration of social and natural sciences. Ceramics from the different areas as hillforts, settlements, cemeteries and barrows will be present in the evaluated sets of finds. Within the project there will be examined the method of evaluation of ceramic sets, terminology, further also typological, chronological and functional analysis of ceramics and the scientific value of statistical analyses of ceramic sets. Natural science analyses will be applied to the studies as one of the goals of project is to rise information potential of ceramics. Output will be the publication of results in the form of studies.

 

Registration number: 2/0083/21

Project duration: 1. 1. 2021 – 31. 12. 2023

Project title: Úloha materiálnej kultúry pri formovaní ekonomických a sociálnych väzieb v neskorostredovekých a novovekých komunitách

Responsible person: Mgr. Mário Bielich, PhD.

Abstract: The goal of the project is to enhance the current knowledge of material culture and specify its role in creation of important relations between the members of various social classes of the post-medieval societies living in the eastern parts of Central Europe. The main source will be provided by the previously unprocessed material collections from the research of castles, churches as well as urban environment. Results of the analyses of this fund together with the information from the latest expert literature will create a sufficiently wide starting base necessary to clarify the economic and social relations documented also in the multiethnic environment of the late medieval and post-medieval Slovakia. The analysis will use multidisciplinary cooperation with anthropologists, archaeozoologists, geophysicists and paleobotanists.

 

Registration number:  02/0062/21

Project duration:  1. 1. 2021 – 31. 12. 2024

Project title: Odraz sociálno-ekonomických zmien v štruktúre zakladania a budovania pravekých sídlisk/Reflection of socio-economic changes in the structure of founding and construction of prehistoric settlements

Responsible person: Mgr. Jozef Ďuriš, PhD.

Abstract: The increased number of detected find contexts (e. g. settlement features of various character, or settlement layers) as well as settlement archaeological material which together create spatial and vertical stratigraphy from recent or rather new archaeological field surveys in prehistoric lowland/fortified settlements or hillforts carried out in the last decades or years create a need for their detailed and complex innovatory (interdisciplinary) processing and later confronting, reviewing or complementing our previous general knowledge of prehistoric settements in Slovakia. It is also important to process individual collections of prehistoric settlement material thoroughly. Adding

information to and gradual summarizing of the general picture of prehistoric settlement units help us see the unsolved questions of several peculiarities of prehistoric settlements as a phenomenon more objectively.

 

Registration number:  02/0159/21

Project duration: 1. 1. 2021 – 31. 12. 2024

Project title: Výzbroj a výstroj bojovníka a jeho koňa v stredoveku/ Military and horse equipment in Medieval Period

Responsible person: Mgr. Michal Holeščák, PhD.

Abstract: Analysis of the chosen artefact types connected with weapons, armour and horse riding equipment, remains of military clashes and presence of armed groups in one place. From the geographical viewpoint, proposed grant rises from regional level to global context of whole Eurasia, from the chronological viewpoint the primary focus is the Medieval Period, from its Early to Late stages. Archaeological material will be analysed with use of modern methods and geographical information systems. The focus of the project is to percieve local and global development, kultural and regional specifications of weapons, armour and horse horse harness in the region north of the Danube in connection with over-regional units in their respective time periods, like the Great Moravia or the Kingdom of Hungary.

 

Registration number:  2/0075/21

Project duration: 1. 1. 2021 – 31. 12. 2024

Project title: Settlement agglomeration of linear culture in the Žitava valley

Responsible person: PhDr. I. Cheben, CSc.

Abstract: The intensification of systematic field research and surface research, supplemented by magnetometry of large areas in the Žitava valley and its tributaries over the course of five years, provided evidence of settlement in the area between Čierne Kľačany and Úľany nad Žitavou. From the point of view of the settlement agglomeration, it is a closed geographical unit, on which extensive settlements of the linear culture and želiezovce group have been documented. The floor plans of houses with wheeled structures were identified on the captured sites, which indicate that urban elements were applied in their construction. Archaeological excavations carried out so far clearly prove that this section of Požitavia has become an extremely important area for solving issues of development of the first peasant communities. The source base obtained by the research will be continuously analyzed and published in studies that will evaluate the movable finding inventory, but other analyzes of samples will be made available within the framework of interdisciplinary research. Monitoring demographic developments is an important part of research.

 

Registration number: 2/0139/21

Project duration: 1. 1. 2021 – 31. 12. 2024

Project title: Mobility of prehistoric, protohistoric and historical communities in Slovakia and its manifestations in archaeological sources

Responsible person: Mgr. Anita Kozubová, PhD.

Abstract: Project aims at the research of various forms of mobility of human societies and individuals during prehistory and protohistory in Slovakia and their archaeological manifestations. The problem is observed from different aspects and from a multidisciplinary perspective (human, social and natural sciences). The main purpose is defining a theoretical research basis at observed time and space, source criticism and modelling of different forms of mobility based on archaeological and historical dates. Subsequently, the creation of central database and acquiring of new dates from anthropological and bioarchaeological material will follow. Findings obtained during the project will be beneficial for the following scientific research and they will enhance competitiveness of Slovak archaeological research towards neighbouring countries, where more scientific attention is being paid to this problem. Research outputs will be presented at international conferences and used during university .education in archaeology.

Registration number: 01/0240/21

Project duration: 1. 1. 2021 – 31. 12. 2024

Project title: The landscape and settlements of the Celts and Germani. Mutual relations, relations in and with the landscape

Responsible persons:  doc. PhDr. V. Varsik, CSc. and doc. PhDr. G. Březinová, CSc.

Abstract: In the last two or three decades, the interest of researchers in the Celtic and Germanic settlements from the LaTène and Roman periods has increased. Thanks to some monographs and important studies, we know the pace of their internal evolution, character of constructions and the material culture of their inhabitants. Now, it helps to form questions exceeding the level of individual sites. Thus, we put mutual relations of the settlements in the focus of our attention, together with the relations of people to the landscape, with regard to obtaining resources in particular. The available data allow us to create various model situations of  the then society’s functioning in relation to its environment. Archaeological finds provide proxy data for reconstruction of climate changes and, thus, contribute to paleoclimatology and paleohydrology, which are only developing in our conditions.

 

Registration number: 2/0101/19

Project duration: 01. 2019-12. 2022

Project title: Technology and economics of raw materials in the context of the development of Postpaleolithic lithic stone industries in Slovakia.

Responsible person: Mgr. Adrián Nemergut, PhD.

Annotation:

The project deals with the study of lithic stone industries from the Mesolithic and Neolithic period in Slovakia. It uses new analytical procedures and methods which are focused on technology and raw material analysis. Evaluating new data from collections from older, but mostly from recent research, will give a new look at the dynamics of technological trends and economics of raw materials in Postpaleolithic industries.

Registration number: 2/0001/18

Project duration: 01. 2018- 12. 2021

Project title: Slovakia and the Middle Danube Region: development from the Early history to the Early Middle Ages

Responsible person: PhDr. Karol Pieta, DrSc.

Annotation:

Through a unified assessment of several historical periods this project aims at providing a comprehensive view on the development of Slovakia in comparison with the Middle Danube Region. It refers to successful results of previous projects implemented by this stable research team and relies on discoveries of Celtic, Germanic and Slavic centres in previous years that significantly enhanced interpretational skills of archaeology.

Aims of project:

The project is dedicated to the study of one of fundamental issues not only in Slovak archaeology, namely historical stages of the Central European indigenous, but also Celtic and Germanic settlement with its tribal and over-tribal power structure that in the early Middle Ages was replaced by the Slavic ethnic formation and its first forms of statehood. Archaeological research usually focus on a single civilisation environment and only rarely offers a more comprehensive perspective on the entire complex process and particularly on mutual relations between periods in economic, cultural and especially ethnic aspects. Exploring this extremely intricate and multi-layer model with scarce archaeological and historical sources is a time-consuming and organisationally challenging task that could be successfully resolved only through a long-term focus on crucial and partial, both theoretical and material, questions raised by this process. The great advantage of the Slovak research lies in significant discoveries of abundant in finds and exceptionally well preserved locations coming from the aforementioned periods (Celtic oppida, burial from Poprad, Slavic power centres) that through an arduous, interdisciplinary study make it possible to advance in comparing and understanding of individual social systems. Objectives of the project cover also basic processing of remarkably precious, yet often unanalysed material finds from important Slovak locations, searching for so far unknown finds and dating of critical constructional and other structures using methods of natural sciences. The proposed project, therefore, also continues conclusions of the previous one implemented by this research team.

Registration number:  2/0115/18

Project duration: 01. 2018-12. 2020

Project title: Metallurgy and non-ferrous metals use from late prehistory until early medieval age in area of Slovakia

Responsible person: PhDr. Ján Rajtár, CSc.

Annotation:

Project is focused on natural-scientific, non-destructive analysis of vast database of artefacts made of non-ferrous metals, dated from the late prehistory (urnfield cultures and hallstatt culture), through proto-history (laténe, roman and great migration periods), until the early medieval period. Aim is to gather relevant information about their composition, raw material sources and processing technologies. Gathered exact data, their evaluation and comparison will serve for identification, if the raw materials used for the artefacts´ creation were local, or were gathered from other, geographically and culturally more distant regions. Results of the analyses will help to evaluate the technical level of metallurgy and general usage of non-ferrous metals by historical cultures, their economic bonds but also various cultural and civilizational influences or transfer of technological experiences and processes.

Registration number: 1/0358/18

Project duration: 01. 2018-12. 2021

Project title: Roman fort at Iža and its position on the border of Pannonia

Responsible person:  prof. Klára Kuzmová, CS./PhDr. Ján Rajtár, CSc.

Annotation:

The purpose of the project is to process, interpret and publish results of the longstanding archaeological excavation of the Roman fort at Iža (distr. Komárno, SR). The fort, lying on the North-Pannonian frontier section, belonged to the border system limes romanus during the 2nd-4th cent. AD. The aim of the project is to document, analyse and interpret its architectural and development phases and selected collections of the finds from its area in a wider historical context. The project will be focused on the unique earth-and-timber phase of the fortification from the period of the marcomannic wars. The main output will be a serie of the thematic oriented monographs and studies. The results of the project will be presented at domestic and foreign conferences and to the public in a popularized form. The results will be also implemented into the classical archaeology study programmes of Trnava University.

Registration number: 2/0084/18

Project duration: 1.1.2018-31.12.2021

Project title: Development and changes of settlement structures of the Upper Tisza river basin in prehistory and early history

Responsible person: PhDr. Eva Horváthová, PhD.

Annotation:

The suggested project reviews the latest knowledge obtained in several domestic and international projects focused exclusively on investigation of the Slovak regions of the Upper Tisza river basin. Thus, it provides continuity of scientific research within the currently studied topics related to some factors influencing changes in the development of multicultural populations from the earliest Stone Ages to the early history in this geographical territory. Simultaneously, it compares selected environmental and social parameters of the dynamics of settlement in the Lučenec-Košice Depression, sets them in a wider cultural-historical context and studies suggested trends in settlement strategies.

Registration number: 2/0146/2018

Project duration: 01. 2018-12. 2021

Project title: Fords, bridges, waterways and settlement patterns in Považie and Ponitrie. Pilot project for utilisation of the archaeological underwater methods in Slovakia.

Responsible person: PhDr. Klaudia Daňová, PhD.

Annotation:

The presented idea is the pilot project focusing on the territory of Slovakia. Its ambition is to explore, document and evaluate the archaeological potential of the underwater enviroment, in cooperation with scientific partners. The selected area are the basins of rivers Váh and Nitra, which, in light of the previous findings, seem to be extremely perspective. However, amounts of technical works and vessels depicted on vedutas or historical maps, written sources and sets of solitary finds do not provide enough informations about their importance. The key to the detailed understanding of a river, as an important element in the life of every society, is its comprehensive research. The possible fulfilment of such research is presented in this project. It would like to bring new informations that will be useful for the future projects relating to communications and mobility of the society in different historical periods. The project draws attention to the protection of underwater cultural heritage in Slovakia.

Registration number: 2/0143/18

Project duration: 01/2018-12/2021

Project title: The medieval village and its background

Responsible person: PhDr. Peter Bednár, CSc.

Annotation:

The project focuses on processing newly acquired material sources concerning development of mediaeval villages in the territory of Slovakia. Its aim is to analyse and present results of more extensive field studies dedicated to the mediaeval rural settlement (Nededza, Figa, Trenčín-Biskupice, Nitra – Párovské Háje, etc.), feudal settlements (Figa), sacral buildings, cemeteries, and objects linked with an economic background of a mediaeval village (fields, roads, exploitation of natural resources in the surroundings of a village).

Registration number: 1/0399/18

Project duration: 1/2018-12/2021

Project title: Dynamics of the environmental changes and landscape development in the Bronze and Iron Age in the northern part of the Western Carpathians

Principal investigator: doc. Mgr. Mária Hajnalová, PhD. Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, sophy Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra

Principal investigator deputy: Mgr. Lucia Benediková, PhD. Institute of Archaeology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Nitra

Annotation:

Palaeoecological and archaeo-environmental reconstruction of the dynamics of environmental changes and land-use in the Bronze and Iron Age in the northern part of the Western Carpathians with the aim to ascertain whether these changes are the result or the cause of changes in the subsistence of prehistoric populations.

Registration number: 1/0243/17
Project duration: 1/2017-12/2020
Project title: The Celts, the Romans, and the Germans. Rural and elite settlements.

Responsible person: doc. PhDr. Gertrúda Březinová, DrSc.

Annotation:

There is a wide range of settlement structures from La Tene and Roman Periods in western and central Slovakia. These vary due to their cultural, geographical, chronological and social characteristics. The goal of this project is to use case studies to analyse and better understand this diversity. Objects of this research are primarily German and Celtic settlements in the southwest of Slovakia and two Púchov-Culture settlements in the north of the country. The Quadic settlements of Roman period offer an opportunity to analyse the process of adaptation of Roman lifestyle by local nobility. Roman architecture north of Danube is an unprecedented phenomenon only observable in the cultural zone of Middle Danube Barbaricum.

Registration number: : 2/0107/17
Project duration: 1/2017-12/2020
Project title: Civilizačný vývoj a štruktúra osídlenia v období kultúry lineárnej na dolnom Požitaví

Responsible person: PhDr. Ivan Cheben, CSc.

Annotation:

Projekt je zameraný na spracovanie a vyhodnotenie nálezových celkov kultúry lineárnej a želiezovskej skupiny v povodí dolného toku Žitavy (od Vrábeľ po ústie do Nitry/Dunaja). Analýza keramiky vychádza z viacročného terénneho výskumu v Patinciach.

Registration number: 2/0072/16
Project duration: 1/2017-12/2020
Project title: Edícia archeologických prameňov z obdobia neolitu a eneolitu Slovenska II.

Responsible person: PhDr. Gabriel Nevizánsky, CSc.

Annotation:

Dokumentačné práce a analýzy nálezov z lokalít: Kamenín, Nitriansky Hrádok, Ožďany, Bajč, Nitra-Mlynárce (SONY), Michalovce-Hrádok, Prešov-Solivar.

Registration number: : 1/0411/16
Project duration: 1/2016-12/18
Project title: Štruktúra a dynamika osídlenia v závere eneolitu a v staršej dobe bronzovej v severozápadnej časti Karpatskej kotliny

Responsible person: prof. PhDr. Jozef Bátora, DrSc.

Anotácia:

Na základe realizovaných terénnych výskumov a prieskumov a vyhodnotenia ich výsledkov aj v prostredí geografických informačných systémov priniesť relevantné informácie, ktoré umožnia poznať a definovať stratégiu, dynamiku a štruktúru osídlenia v závere eneolitu a v staršej dobe bronzovej v severozápadnej časti Karpatskej oblasti.

Registration number: 2/0175/16
Project duration: 01/2016-12/2019
Project title: Corpus hillforts from early Middle Ages in Slovakia

Responsible person: doc. PhDr. Matej Ruttkay, CSc.

Annotation:

Project is focused on a discinctive phenomenon during the early Middle Ages in Slovakia – Hillforts. The objective is to compile a monograph, vhich will contain significantly more knowledge, than is currently available. At the same time detailed field surveys will be conducted with the most detailed documentation, samples will be carefully selected for the dendrochronological, eventually 14C dating, geophysical survey.

Registration number: 2/0091/16
Project duration: 1/2016-12/19
Project title: Slovensko v dobe bronzovej – križovatka súvekých európskych civilizácií

Responsible person: PhDr. Ondrej Ožďáni, CSc.

Annotation:

Based on the results of new archaeological research excavations carried out on settlements, hill-forts and burial grounds in recent decades, and a comprehensive evaluation of previously unprocessed older and unpublished field activities, the project is focused to clarify historical situation in Slovakia in more detail in the direct context of development in neighbouring and remote areas of Central Europe in the Bronze Age.

Registration number: 2/0075/16
Project duration: 1/2016-12/19
Project title: Archaeological studies concerning Early Middle Ages

Responsible person: PhDr. Gabriel Fusek, CSc.

Annotation:

Multithematic project dealing with actual problematic of Early Medieval society in region of toda´s Slovakia and in wider geographical horizon of Eastern Central Europe. Confrontation of standard archaeological dating of early Slavic period with results of radiocarbon analyses. Graveyards as a source for knowing the interethnic relations and social levels of society in the period of Avar Khaganate. Publication of results in form of papers and monographs.