Roman Fort in Iža - Kelemantia


Most of Pannonia´s territory had been devastated during the Marcomannic wars. Lot of the fortifications along the frontier had been demolished or badly damaged. Quick repairs started already during the wars, and construction of lot of the arduous buildings went on at the Emperor Commodus´ time (180-192 AD). Stone fortifications replaced the original and demaged earth-and-timber forts and also stone watch tower were build between them.

After the assassinations of Commodus and his successor Pertinax, the high importance for the developement of Pannonia had a victory in the fight for the throne of Septimius Severus. Pannonian legions in Carnuntum proclaimed him the Emperor in 193, and he stayed grateful for their support during whole period of his reign. This period is characterised by stability and increased economic prosperity of the province.

Even though some important reforms and increase of the soldiers pay done by the Severian Dynasty improved the conditions of military service, these situation led to the concentration of power to the hands of military commanders. Gradually they started to interfere the inner empire polithics. As a result, after the assassination of Alexander Severus - the last emperor of the dynasty - in 235 AD, the Roman Empire came to a serious political and economic crisis. It was a period of so called military emperors. During these times the repeated attacs on the frontier by Germanic as well as Sarmatian tribes were common. The Roman legions in the province used to proclaim simultaneously more successfull commanders as candidates for the emperors throne. The external attacks culminated in 285-260 AD when several devastating attacs came from the Marcomanni and Quadi tribes on the Limes in northern Pannonia.

Emperor Gallienus (253-268) partly succeeded in strengthening the Romans´position on the North-Danubian territory, but the stabilisation of the Pannonian border and the consolidation of the Roman Empire took˙place not before the reign of the Emperor Diocletian (284-305 AD), who made new important military, economic and administrative reforms. However, the renovation and reconstruction of the military sites in Pannonia and the the construction of new fortifications at the strategic points was carried out later, during the reign of the Constantine Dynasty. The newly designed and inovated fortifications (narrow gates, strong and powerfull walls with outstanding side- and corner- towers) shows that army troops on the Limes (limitanei) were permanently concentarted mainly on the border defense. Simultaneously an internal defence system of so-called internal fortifications was build. The fortifications build along the important routes, secured the protection of the inner area of the province and also served as supply or reserve bases for mobile military troops (comitatenses).

The building of the North-Pannonian border

The Roman Army

The armament and equipment of the Roman Soldiers

The role and importance of the Roman Army

Marcomannic wars on the Danube

The last attempts and the decline of the Roman authority



    © ElenaBlazova