Roman Fort in Iža - Kelemantia


There were not big differences between the armams and equipment of the Roman legionaries and the soldiers of the auxiliary troops. The soldiers had to buy their equipment themselves. Their head was protected by by a helmet (cassis galea), and body by armour (horica) and wooden shield covered with leather, fastened with iron on the sides (scutum). From the 1st century AD, the infantrymen and the legionaries started to use armours made of iron stripes (lorica segmentata). Later it was repalced by an armour made of wire-net (lorica hamata) or iron scales (lorica squamata), used mostly by the horsemen. The legionary shield was heavy, with rectangular shape and slightly bent. The auxiliary troops used light, oval, round or hexagonal shield. The legionaries were armed with a heavy throw-spear (pilum) and they used a short sword (gladius) and a dagger (pugio) in hand-to-hand fights. The horsemen were armed with a light spear (iaculus hasta) or with a heavy stab-spear (contus) and a long double cut sword (spatha) which later became also to be a weapon of the legionaries and the soldiers of the auxiliary troops. There were also formations with special equipment including archers (sagitarii) and catapult soldiers (funditores). They used machines with shooting mechanism (ballista, catapulta) and stone-throwing mechanism (onager) during both attack and defence.

The soldiers´ clothing was simple but functional. They wore short tunic and trousers with the lenght to the knees (feminalia) and a gown of various lenghts and cuts protected them against the cold weather (paludamentum, sagum, paenula). The military belt (cingulum militare) was an important part of their clothing, to which the short sword, the dagger and/or a short knife were fastened. The long sword – used by the horsemen, and later also by the infantrymen – was fastened to a leather belt (balteus) which they wore on their shoulder. The shoes were firm leather sandals (caligae) shoed by iron rivets.



The building of the North-Pannonian border

The Roman Army

The role and importance of the Roman Army

Marcomannic wars on the Danube

The period of prosperity and decline

The last attempts and the decline of the Roman authority



    © ElenaBlazova